A little shameless press…


Last month’s Journal of Forestry and the Forestry Source Newspaper featuring our article “Implications of diameter caps on multiple forest resource responses in the context of 4FRI: Results from the Forest Vegetation Simulator” and an interview with Dr. Sanchez Meador.


Last month, the Forestry Source (the Society of American Foresters’ newspaper) decided to feature one of our recently published articles and the resulting news article included an interview with yours truly. I’ll be the first to admin that while I’m a huge extrovert, I hate giving interviews. The editor did a great job and I’m happy with the way the article turned out. If you’d like to read the new article you can download it here and if you like to read manuscript, which appeared in the Journal of Forestry that same month, you can find it here.

Here’s the citation for the manuscript: Sánchez Meador, A.J., Waring, K.M., and E.L. Kalies. 2015. Implications of diameter caps on multiple forest resource responses in the context of 4FRI: Results from the Forest Vegetation Simulator. Journal of Forestry 113(2) 219-230.


A couple of new wildfire-related publications

Over the past year I have had the opportunity to work a several wildfire-related projects, two of which are now available from their publishers. The first focuses on the effectiveness of fuel treatments following the Wallow  (2011) fire and the second focuses on long-term forest dynamics under alternative climate and management scenarios following the Rodeo-Chediski (2002) fire. These were both great projects and I think collectively they provide quite a bit of insight into the abilities of managers and agencies to mitigate wildfire effects (during and after) and highlight the effects treatments have on resiliency and given different climate scenarios.

Screenshot 2014-10-02 07.12.24 Amy E. M. Waltz, Michael T. Stoddard, Elizabeth L. Kalies, Judith D. Springer, David W. Huffman, and A.J. Sánchez Meador. 2014. Effectiveness of fuel reduction treatments: assessing metrics of forest resiliency and wildfire severity after the Wallow Fire, AZ. Forest Ecology and Management 334(15): 43-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2014.08.026

Abstract: Landscape-scale wildfire has occurred in higher frequencies across the planet. Fuel reduction treatments to fire-adapted systems have been shown to reduce the impact to human values-at-risk. However, few studies have examined if these treatments contribute to ecosystem resilience, or the capacity of a system to absorb perturbation and return to a similar set of structures or processes. We defined short-term metrics of resiliency to test the hypothesis that fuel reduction treatments in mixed conifer forests increased a fire-adapted system’s resiliency to uncharacteristically severe wildfire. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that fuel reduction treatments reduced burn severity, thereby increasing protection for adjacent human communities. We examined a mixed conifer forested landscape in the southwestern U.S. that was burned by a landscape-scale “mega-fire” in 2011; fuel reduction treatments had been established around communities in the 10 years prior to the fire. Fire effects were highly variable in both treated and untreated forests. However, analysis of resiliency metrics showed that: (a) treated units retained a higher proportion of large trees and had post-fire tree densities within the natural range of variability; (b) the understory herbaceous community had significantly higher cover of native grasses in the treated units, but no significant differences in nonnative cover between treated and untreated units; and (c) high-severity patch sizes were significantly larger in untreated stands and covered a larger proportion of the landscape than historical reference conditions. Fire severity, as defined by overstory mortality and basal area loss, was significantly lower in treated units; on average, trees killed per hectare in untreated units was six times the number of trees killed in treated units. Fuel reduction treatments simultaneously reduced fire severity and enhanced short-term metrics of ecosystem resiliency to uncharacteristically severe fire.

 Screenshot 2014-10-02 07.12.15 Alicia Azpeleta Tarancón, Peter Z. Fulé, Kristen L. Shive, Carolyn H. Sieg, Andrew Sánchez Meador, and Barbara Strom 2014. Simulating post-wildfire forest trajectories under alternative climate and management scenarios. Ecological Applications 24:1626–1637. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/13-1787.1

Abstract: Post-fire predictions of forest recovery under future climate change and management actions are necessary for forest managers to make decisions about treatments. We applied the Climate-Forest Vegetation Simulator (Climate-FVS), a new version of a widely used forest management model, to compare alternative climate and management scenarios in a severely burned multispecies forest of Arizona, USA. The incorporation of seven combinations of General Circulation Models (GCM) and emissions scenarios altered long-term (100 years) predictions of future forest condition compared to a No Climate Change (NCC) scenario, which forecast a gradual increase to high levels of forest density and carbon stock. In contrast, emissions scenarios that included continued high greenhouse gas releases led to near-complete deforestation by 2111. GCM-emissions scenario combinations that were less severe reduced forest structure and carbon stock relative to NCC. Fuel reduction treatments that had been applied prior to the severe wildfire did have persistent effects, especially under NCC, but were overwhelmed by increasingly severe climate change. We tested six management strategies aimed at sustaining future forests: prescribed burning at 5, 10, or 20-year intervals, thinning 40% or 60% of stand basal area, and no treatment. Severe climate change led to deforestation under all management regimes, but important differences emerged under the moderate scenarios: treatments that included regular prescribed burning fostered low density, wildfire-resistant forests composed of the naturally dominant species, ponderosa pine. Non-fire treatments under moderate climate change were forecast to become dense and susceptible to severe wildfire, with a shift to dominance by sprouting species. Current U.S. forest management requires modeling of future scenarios but does not mandate consideration of climate change effects. However, this study showed substantial differences in model outputs depending on climate and management actions. Managers should incorporate climate change into the process of analyzing the environmental effects of alternative actions.


New publication resulting from work that began in Nepal

Some recent work, done almost exclusively through Facebook exchanges on my end, has been published in the the most recent issue of International Journal of Research. This work started in while in Nepal, and largetly consisted of helping my co-authors with analyses and interpretations.While this work is not in my usual focus area, I feel like it’s a good example of how collaborations can stem from the most unlike of circumstances.

S. Nepal, B.R. Ojha, A.J. Sánchez Meador, S.P. Gaire, and C. Shilpakar. 2014. Effect of gamma rays on germination and photosynthetic pigments of maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds. International Journal of Research. 1(5): 511-545. Download

Here’s the abstract:

This investigation was carried out to determine the effects of gamma radiation on germination and photosynthetic pigments of two maize inbred lines (RML-17 and RML-32). The pure dry seeds were irradiated with variable dosages (200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy) at the rate of 65cGy/min from 60Co source. The results showed that there was a significant decreasing effect of the gamma rays on the final germination percentage (FGP) but the rate of germination was not significantly affected by radiation dosages. However, a decreasing trend was observed in general for the germination rate. The higher dose (350Gy) of gamma rays was found to have the maximum inhibitory effect on FGP for both inbreeds (31.2% for line RML-17 and 33.3% for RMl-32)The inhibitory effect of gamma rays was seen for the photosynthetic pigments especially, the chlorophyll-a [minimum at 350 Gy( 6.25mg/gm Fw) for Rml-32]The non-irradiated samples in both inbreed exhibited higher chlorophyll-a content(11.056gmg/gmFW for RMl-17 and 11.74mg/gmFw for RML-32). The effect of gamma rays on chlorophyll-b content was no significant but a decreasing effect was seen in higher radiation dosages. The total chlorophyll content was found significantly affected by dosage for line RMl-32,it was found maximum (21.25gm/mgFw) for non-irradiated sample with the minimum total chlorophyll content occurring at 350Gy(13.47mg/gmFW) furthermore, the concentration of chlorophyll-a was higher than chlorophyll-b in both irradiated and non-irradiated plants except at 350Gy for line RML-32 where chlorophyll-b7(7.21mg/gmFW) was found maximum compared to chlorophyll-a (6.25mg/gmFW). The overall effect of the gamma rays was inhibitory for all the traits under the study.


The Culmination of a Multi-year Collaborative Effort

1000343_10201990475388401_2134217229_nThe image to the left is of RMRS-GTR-310. For me, this manuscript is the culmination of a multi-year collaborative effort with the USFS Southwestern Region and RMRS intended to provide land managers with a better understanding of forest structure, composition, and processes as they analyze and make decisions about restoration of frequent-fire forests. The document synthesizes relevant forest science, provides implementation suggestions, and communicates the broad range of benefits associated with the restoration of frequent-fire forests.

Reynolds, Richard T.; Sánchez Meador, Andrew J.; Youtz, James A.; Nicolet, Tessa; Matonis, Megan S.; Jackson, Patrick L.; DeLorenzo, Donald G.; Graves, Andrew D. 2013. Restoring composition and structure in Southwestern frequent-fire forests: A science-based framework for improving ecosystem resiliency. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-310. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 76 p. Download

Ponderosa pine and dry mixed-conifer forests in the Southwest United States are experiencing, or have become increasingly susceptible to, large-scale severe wildfire, insect, and disease episodes resulting in altered plant and animal demographics, reduced productivity and biodiversity, and impaired ecosystem processes and functions. We present a management framework based on a synthesis of science on forest ecology and management, reference conditions, and lessons learned during implementations of our restoration framework. Our framework focuses on the restoration of key elements similar to the historical composition and structure of vegetation in these forests: (1) species composition; (2) groups of trees; (3) scattered individual trees; (4) grass-forb-shrub interspaces; (5) snags, logs, and woody debris; and (6) variation in the arrangements of these elements in space and time. Our framework informs management strategies that can improve the resiliency of frequent-fire forests and facilitate the resumption of characteristic ecosystem processes and functions by restoring the composition, structure, and spatial patterns of vegetation. We believe restoration of key compositional and structural elements on a per-site basis will restore resiliency of frequent-fire forests in the Southwest, and thereby position them to better resist, and adapt to, future disturbances and climates.